A rare bone marrow failure disease caused by low blood cell counts.
A type of therapy
An antibody based therapy that is aimed at Lymphocytes (A type of white blood cell and key part of the immune cell that attacks the stem cells in the bone marrow). This therapy is commonly used as part of the preparatory treatment before the stem cell transplant.
A number of drugs that can be used to help fight/stop fungal infections. Examples of these drugs are amphotericin, posaconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole and nystatin.
ATG is a purified serum that suppresses the immune system to allow the bone marrow time to recover. It is produced by injecting animals (horse or rabbit) with white blood cells called lymphocytes. The animal then makes antibodies which are collected and purified to produce globulin.
ATG can either be used ahead of a stem cell transplant (rabbit) or with ciclosporin as a stand-alone treatment to let the bone marrow recover.
A small sample of bone marrow taken for examination
A small bit of bone marrow that is taken under local anaesthetic from either the hip bone or breast bone. The sample is then examined by microscope for abnormalities in the young blood cells.
Bone marrow biopsy and trephine sample
A small section of bone is taken under anaesthetic from either the hip or breast bones for examination. This is usually performed at the same time as the aspirate is taken.
A temporary thin tube
A temporary thin tube put into the vein for the giving of fluids or intravenous drugs, or for taking of blood samples.
A central catheter/line
A central venous catheter, more commonly called a central line or HICKMAN line is a small flexible plastic tube put into the large vein somewhere above the heart. This is used for giving fluids/drugs or for taking blood samples.
An immunosuppressant drug
Is an immunosuppressant drug which can be used for the treatment of aplastic anaemia.
Umbilical cord blood
Blood from the umbilical cord taken at the time of birth. This source of blood is very high in stem cells and can be used as a stem cell source for a stem cell transplant.
A type of curative therapy
Treatment with the potential of restoring the bone marrow function so that patients can become transfusion-free, at less risk of infection/bleeding and live a more normal lifestyle.
A type of drug used as part of treatment for aplastic anaemia
A drug to help stimulate platelets to grow in the bone marrow.
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor
A drug designed to help white blood cell production.
Otherwise known as the 'Hickman line'
Hickman is a type of central line or central venous catheter used for the giving of drugs or taking of blood.
A term used to describe poorly functioning bone marrow
Bone marrow with very low numbers of young blood cells.
A disease with no known cause
In idiopathic aplastic anaemia its causes are unknown.
A type of blood disorder where the blood cells are defective. The bone marrow cells do not mature, resulting in a low number of working blood cells. MDS is a type of cancer.
White blood cells
The most important and plentiful of the white cells. They are the first line of defence against infections by absorbing and destroying waste or damaging material like disease-producing bacteria.
Peripherally inserted central catheter
A PICC line is a long, thin, flexible tube inserted into one of the large veins of the arm above the elbow. The line is then threaded into the vein until the tip of it sits in a large vein just above the heart.
The blood cell which helps to control and stop bleeding. It is this cell that creates the consistency of blood when we bleed. They are also known as thrombocytes.
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinurial (PNH)
A type of bone marrow failure where blood cells are destroyed more quickly than normal.
A key type of blood cell
The red blood cell contains the red coloured haemoglobin or erythrocytes. It carries oxygen to all the tissue within the body. A lack of this type of cell is known as anaemia.
A type of red blood cell
Reticulocyte is the term that refers to young and immature red blood cells.
Severe aplastic anaemia
In severe aplastic anaemia there are less than 30% of stem cells in the bone marrow and any two of the following apply: · An absolute neutrophil count of less than 0.5· A low platelet count (less than 20)· A reticulocyte count of less than 60.